This seminar offers a graduate-level foundation of theory and new empirical research in sociological criminology. Our focus is definitive statements from important theoretical traditions and critical empirical tests of these theories. In addition, we consider critiques of the theories or the research generated by them and attempts to translate theories into policy.
You will read a host of challenging research articles throughout the semester, but I’ve tried to limit the number of required readings to about five per week. The recommended readings are all exemplary work on the topic that should be on your reading lists but won’t be discussed in our weekly meetings unless student interest is very high. I’ve put a lot of my own work on this syllabus – not because it is exemplary (it is not) but so that I can share reviews and backstage details about the research and publication process that may be helpful to you. The required Kubrin volume offers an excellent introductory overview of this research literature, while also helping to fill gaps in coverage.
- The course will help you develop a more nuanced understanding of the dominant theoretical traditions in criminology. This knowledge is absolutely fundamental to teaching criminology at the college level and to developing graduate reading lists and publishing research in the area.
- We will work through empirical pieces by many of the best sociological criminologists. As you develop your own research, it is useful to see how others have translated propositions into testable hypotheses, devised appropriate methodologies to test them, and presented the results to diverse audiences.
- The course will stimulate your thinking about questions at the intersection of science and public policy. These include how we produce our knowledge, its relevance to lives outside the academy (and penitentiary), and the utility of crime theories and criminologists. Such big-picture considerations may help you to choose the level of abstraction at which you work and the contributions you’d like to make as teachers and researchers. For example, I study crime, law, and deviance because I believe that good science can light the way to a more just and safer world. I’ll encourage you to developing your own goals, mission, and orientation to the field.
- Finally, a graduate seminar should encourage your professional development as you make the transition from student to independent social scientist. I will share anonymous reviews, letters from funding agencies and journal editors, and other materials that may show you another side of the research and publication process.
- Becker, Howard S. 1963. Outsiders. New York: Free Press.
- Clear, Todd. 2007. Imprisoning Communities: How Mass Incarceration Makes Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Worse. New York: Oxford.
- Katz, Jack. 1988. Seductions of Crime: Moral and Sensual Attractions in Doing Evil. New York: Basic Books.
- Gottfredson, Michael R., and Travis Hirschi. 1990. A General Theory of Crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
- Hirschi, Travis. 1969. Causes of Delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Kornhauser, Ruth R. 1977. Social Sources of Delinquency: An Appraisal of Analytic Models. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Laub, John H. and Robert J. Sampson. 2003. Shared Beginnings, Divergent Lives: Delinquent Boys to Age 70
- Maruna, Shadd. 2001. Making Good: How Ex-Convicts Reform and Rebuild Their Lives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Warr, Mark. 2002. Companions in Crime: The Social Aspects of Criminal Conduct. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Western, Bruce. 2006. Punishment and Inequality in America. New York: Russell Sage.
TENTATIVE OUTLINE AND REQUIRED READINGS
1/24 WELCOME and THE BIG PICTURE
“I haven't committed a crime. What I did was fail to comply with the law.” – David Dinkins
Wilson, James Q. 1975. Thinking about Crime. Chapter 3: “Criminologists.”
Sampson, Robert J. 2000. “Whither
the Sociological Study of Crime?” Annual Review of
Introductions and Discussion of Projects -- Bring your ideas!
1/31 CRIMINOLOGY, ITS PUBLICS, and POLICIES
“The worst crime is faking it” – Kurt Cobain
Kubrin, Stucky, and Krohn, Chapter 1. [Okay to skim this basic material]
Sherman, Lawrence L., Denise
C. Gottfredson, Doris L. MacKenzie, John Eck, Peter Reuter, and
Shawn D. Bushway. 1998. "Preventing
Crime: What Works, What Doesn’t, What’s Promising.”
National Institute of Justice Research in Brief. Washington, DC:
Drake, Elizabeth K., Steve Aos, and Marna G. Miller. 2009. “Evidence-Based Public Policy Options to Reduce Crime and Criminal Justice Costs: Implications in Washington State.” Victims and Offenders 4:170-196.
Christopher Uggen and Michelle Inderbitzin. 2010. “Public Criminologies.” Criminology and Public Policy 9: 725-750 [also read introduction by Todd Clear and Policy Essay responses by Paul Rock, Kenneth Land, Ian Loader and Richard Sparks, Michael Tonry, and Daniel Mears, pp. 751-805].
Clarke, Ronald V. and Derek
B. Cornish. 1985. “Modeling Offenders’ Decisions: A
Framework for Research and Policy.” Pp. 147-85 in Crime and
Justice: An Annual Review of Research, Volume 6, edited by Norval
Morris and Michael Tonry. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
*Loader, Ian and Richard Sparks. 2010. Public Criminology?: Criminological Politics in the Twenty-first Century. Routledge, UK.
*Blueprints for Violence Prevention, a project of the Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence at the University of Colorado.
*Simon, Jonathan. 2007. Governing Through Crime. New York: Oxford University Press.
*Whetstone, Sarah and Arturo Baiocchi. 2010. "Criminal Desistance, Housing Stability, and Improved Quality of Life in a Housing First Program: Results from the FUSE Study." Prepared for Hennepin County FUSE, St. Stephen's Human Services, Heading Home Hennepin, and Hennepin County Community Corrections.
2/7 DETERRENCE, MONEY, and CHOICE
“We are often deterred from crime by the disgrace of others.” – Horace
Kubrin, Stucky, and Krohn, Chapter 2.
Sherman, Lawrence W. and Douglas
A. Smith. 1992. “Crime,
Punishment, and Stake in Conformity: Legal and Informal Control
of Domestic Violence.” American Sociological Review 57:680-90.
Matsueda, Ross L., Derek A. Kreager, and David Huizinga. 2006. “Deterring Delinquents: A Rational Choice Model of Theft and Violence.” American Sociological Review 71: 95-122.
Uggen, Christopher and Melissa Thompson. 2003. “The Socioeconomic Determinants of Ill-Gotten Gains: Within-Person Changes in Drug Use and Illegal Earnings.” American Journal of Sociology 109:146-85.
Alexes Harris, Heather Evans and Katherine Beckett. 2010. “Drawing Blood from Stones: Legal Debt and Social Inequality in the Contemporary United States.” American Journal of Sociology 115: 1753-99.
*McCarthy, Bill. 2002. “New
Economics of Sociological Criminology.” Annual Review
of Sociology 28:417-42.
*Piliavin, Irving, Rosemary Gartner,
Craig Thornton, and Ross L. Matsueda. 1986. “Crime,
Deterrence, and Rational Choice.” American Sociological
*Becker, Gary. 1968. “Crime
and Punishment: An Economic Approach.” Journal of
Political Economy 76:169-217.
* Nagin, Daniel S., Francis T. Cullen, and Cheryl Lero Jonson. 2009. “Imprisonment and Reoffending.” In Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, edited by Michael Tonry. Volume 38. University of Chicago Press.
2/14 SOCIAL (DIS)ORGANIZATION, COLLECTIVE EFFICACY, and CONTEXT
“The real significance of crime is in its being a breach of faith with the community of mankind”
– Joseph Conrad
Kubrin, Stucky, and Krohn, Chapter 4.
Shaw, Clifford, and Henry H. McKay. 1931. Juvenile Delinquency in Urban Areas. Chapters.
Sampson, Robert J., Stephen
W. Raudenbush, and Felton Earls. 1997. “Neighborhoods
and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy.”
Baumer, Eric, Steven F. Messner, and Richard Rosenfeld. 2004. “Dimensions of Social Capital and Rates of Criminal Homicide.” American Sociological Review 69:882-903.
Lyons, Christopher. 2007. “Community (Dis)Organization and Racially Motivated Crime.” American Journal of Sociology 113:815-63.
*Sampson, Robert J. and Steve
Raudenbush. 1999. "Systematic
Social Observation of Public Spaces: A New Look at Disorder in Urban
Neighborhoods." American Journal of Sociology 105: 603-651.
*Pattillo Mary E. 1998. "Sweet
Mothers and Gangbangers: Managing Crime in a Black Middle-Class
Neighborhood." Social Forces 76:747-74.
*Clear Todd R., Rose Dina R,
Waring Elin, and Kristen Scully. 2003. “Coercive
Mobility And Crime: A Preliminary Examination Of Concentrated Incarceration
And Social Disorganization.” Justice Quarterly 20:33-64.
*Papachristos, Andrew V. 2009. “Murder by Structure: Dominance Relations and The Social Structure of Gang Homicide.” American Journal of Sociology 115: 74-128.
*Bellair, Paul E, and Christopher Browning. 2010. "Contemporary disorganization research: An assessment and further test of the systemic model of neighborhood crime." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.
2/21 DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION and PEER EFFECTS
“If you share your friend's crime, you make it your own” – Latin proverb
Kubrin, Stucky, and Krohn, Chapter 6.
Sutherland, Edwin H. 1973. “Development of the Theory.” Pp. 13-29 and “Critique of the Theory” Pp. 30-41 in Edwin H. Sutherland on Analyzing Crime, edited by Karl Schuessler. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Sutherland, Edwin H. and Donald R. Cressey. “A Sociological Theory of Criminal Behavior.” Pp. 77-83 in Criminology 10th Edition.
McCarthy, Bill and Teresa Casey. 2008. “Love, Sex, and Crime: Adolescent Romantic Relationships and Offending.” American Sociological Review 73:944-969.
Kling, Jeffrey R., Jens Ludwig, and Lawrence F. Katz. 2005. “Neighborhood Effects on Crime for Female and Male Youth: Evidence from a Randomized Housing Voucher Experiment.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 120: 87-130.
*Duncan, Greg J., Johanne Boisjoly, Michael Kremer, Dan M. Levy, and Jacque Eccles. 2005. “Peer Effects in Drug Use and Sex among College Students.” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 33:375-385.
*Kreager, Derek. 2007. “Unnecessary Roughness? School Sports, Peer Networks, and Male Adolescent Violence.” American Sociological Review 72:705-724.
*Matsueda, Ross L. 1982. “Testing Control Theory and Differential Association: A Causal Modeling Approach.” American Sociological Review 47:489-504.
*Warr, Mark. 2002. Companions
in Crime: The Social Aspects of Criminal Conduct. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. Chapters 4-6.
2/28 ANOMIE THEORY and “STRAIN” VARIANTS
“The common argument that crime is caused by poverty is a kind of slander on the poor.” – HL Mencken
Kubrin, Stucky, and Krohn, Chapter 5.
Merton, Robert K. 1938. “Social
Structure and Anomie.” American Sociological Review 3:672-82.
Zhao, Ruohui and Liqun Cao. 2010. "Social Change and Anomie - A Cross-National Study." Social Forces 88:1209-1229.
Agnew, Robert, Timoty Brezina,
John Paul Wright, and Francis T. Cullen. 2002. “Strain,
Personality Traits, and Delinquency: Extending General Strain Theory” Criminology 40:43-72.
Rosenfeld, Richard and Robert Fornango. 2007. “The Impact of Economic Conditions on Robbery and Property Crime: The Role of Consumer Sentiment.” Criminology 45: 735-769
*Messner, Steven F. and Richard
Rosenfeld. 1997. “Political
Restraint of the Market and Levels of Criminal Homicide: A Cross-National
Application of Institutional-Anomie Theory” Social
Forces 75: 1393-1416.
*Aseltine, Robert, Susan Gore, and Jennifer Gordon. 2000. “Life Stress, Anger and Anxiety, and Delinquency: An Empirical Test of General Strain Theory.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 41:256-275.
*Cloward, Richard A. and Lloyd Ohlin. 1960. Delinquency and Opportunity: A Theory of Delinquent Gangs. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.
*Blau, Peter, and Judith Blau.
Cost of Inequality: Metropolitan Structure and Violent Crime.”
American Sociological Review 47:114-29.
3/7 SOCIAL CONTROL and SELF CONTROL
“Educate your children to self-control, to the habit of holding passion and prejudice and evil tendencies to an upright and reasoning will, and you have done much to abolish misery from their future lives and crimes to society.” – Daniel Webster
Kubrin, Stucky, and Krohn, Chapter 7, pp. 167-196.
Hirschi, Travis. 1969. Causes of Delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press. Chapters 1 and 2 (Chapters 7-11 recommended if you are unfamiliar with Hirschi).
Sampson, Robert J. and John
H. Laub. 1990. “Crime
and Deviance over the Life Course: The Salience of Adult Social
Bonds.” American Sociological Review 55:609-627.
Gottfredson, Michael R., and Travis Hirschi. 1990. A General Theory of Crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Chapters.
Wright, Bradley R. et al. 1999.
Self Control, Social Bonds, and Crime: Social Causation, Social
Selection, or Both?” Criminology 37:479-514.
Caspi, Avshalom, et al. 2002. "Role of Genotype in the Cycle of Violence in Maltreated Children". Science 297: 851–854.
*Edin, Kathryn, Timothy J. Nelson, and Rechelle Paranal. 2004. “Fatherhood and Incarceration as Potential Turning Points in the Criminal Careers of Unskilled Men.” Pp. 46-75 in Imprisoning America: The Social Effects of Mass Incarceration, edited by Mary Pattillo, David Weiman, and Bruce Western. New York: Russell Sage.
*Costello, Barbara, and Paul Vowell. “Testing Control Theory and Differential Association: A Reanalysis of the Richmond Youth Project Data.” Criminology 37:815-42.
*Guo, Guang, Michael Roettger, and Tianji Cai. 2008. “The Integration of Genetic Propensities into Social-Control Models of Delinquency and Violence among Male Youths.” American Sociological Review 73:543-568.
*Heimer, Karen, and Ross L.
Matsueda. 1994. “Role-Taking,
Role Commitment, and Delinquency: A Theory of Differential Social
Control.” American Sociological Review 59:365-390
3/14 - SPRING BREAK
3/21 LABELING and SOCIETAL REACTION
“We enact many laws that manufacture criminals, and then a few that punish them.” –Allen Tucker
Kubrin, Stucky, and Krohn, Chapter 8.
Becker, Howard S. 1963. Outsiders. New York: Free Press. Chapters.
Lemert, Edwin. 1967. Human Deviance, Social Problems, and Social Control. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Chapter 3.
Matsueda, Ross L. 1992. “Reflected
Appraisals, Parental Labeling, and Delinquency: Specifying a Symbolic
Interactionist Theory.” American Journal of Sociology 97: 1577-1611.
Pager, Devah, Bruce Western, and Bart Bonikowski. 2009. “Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment.” American Sociological Review 74: 777-99.
*Sampson, Robert J. and Stephen W. Raudenbush. 2004. “Seeing Disorder: Neighborhood Stigma and the Social Construction of "Broken Windows".” Social Psychology Quarterly 67:319-342.
*Pager, Devah. 2003. “The
Mark of a Criminal Record.” American Journal of Sociology 108: 937-975.
*Bernburg Jon Gunnar, and Marvin
D. Krohn. 2003. “Labeling, Life Chances, and Adult Crime:
The Direct and Indirect Effects of Official Intervention in Adolescence
on Crime in Early Adulthood.” Criminology 41:1287-1318.
*Thompson, Melissa. 2010. "Race, Gender, and the Social Construction of Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System. Sociological Perspectives 53:99-126.
*Hagan, John, and Alberto Palloni.
Social Reproduction of a Criminal Class in Working-Class London,
circa 1950-1980." American Journal of Sociology 96:265-99.
*Erikson, Kai T. 1962. “Notes
on the Sociology of Deviance.” Social Problems 9:307-14.
3/28 PHENOMENOLOGY, IDENTITY, and DESISTANCE
“There is a heroism in crime as well as in virtue. Vice and infamy have their altars and their religion.” – William Hazlitt
Katz, Jack. 1988. Seductions of Crime: Moral and Sensual Attractions in Doing Evil. New York: Basic Books. Chapters 1-3.
Maruna, Shadd. 2001. Making Good: How Ex-Convicts Reform and Rebuild Their Lives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Chapters 1, 5, and 6.
Michael Massoglia and Christopher Uggen. 2010. “Settling Down and Aging Out: Toward an Interactionist Theory of Desistance and the Transition to Adulthood.” American Journal of Sociology 116:543-82.
Giordano, Peggy C, Stephen A.
Cernkovich, and Jennifer L. Rudolph. 2002. “Gender,
Crime, and Desistance: Toward a Theory of Cognitive Transformation.” American Journal of Sociology 107:990-1064.
Kirk, David S. 2009. "A Natural Experiment on Residential Change and Recidivism: Lessons from Hurricane Katrina." American Sociological Review 74:484-505.
*Hagan, John, and Holly Foster.
a Rebel: Toward a Sequential Stress Theory of Delinquency and Gendered
Pathways to Disadvantage in Emerging Adulthood.” Social
Forces 82: 53-86.
*Maruna, Shadd. 2011. “Reentry as a Rite of Passage.” Forthcoming in Punishment & Society.
*Cohen, Albert. 1950. Delinquent Boys.
4/4 CRIMINAL CAREERS and THE LIFE COURSE
“When you are younger you get blamed for crimes you never committed and when you're older you begin to get credit for virtues you never possessed. It evens itself out.” - George Santayana
Laub, John H., and Robert J. Sampson. 2003. Shared Beginnings, Divergent Lives: Delinquent Boys to Age 70. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Chapters.
Moffitt, Terrie E. 1993. “Adolescent-Limited
and Life-Course-Persistent Antisocial Behavior: A Developmental
Taxonomy.” Psychological Review 100: 674-701.
Blumstein, Alfred. 1987. “Characterizing
Criminal Careers.” Science 237:985-91.
Uggen, Christopher. 2000. “Work as a Turning Point in the Life Course of Criminals: A Duration Model of Age, Employment, and Recidivism.” American Sociological Review 65:529-46.
King, Ryan, Michael Massoglia, and Ross Macmillan. 2007. “The Context of Marriage and Crime: Gender, the Propensity to Marry, and Offending in Early Adulthood.” Criminology 45:33-65.
*Moffitt, Terrie E. and Avshalom Caspi. 2001. “Childhood Predictors Differentiate Life-Course Persistent and Adolescence-Limited Pathways among Males and Females.” Development and Psychopathology 13:355-375.
*Staff, Jeremy, D. Wayne Osgood, John E. Schulenberg, Jerald G. Bachman, and Emily E. Messersmith. 2011. “Explaining the Relationship between Employment and Juvenile Delinquency.” Criminology.
*Piquero Alex R., David P. Farrington, and Alfred Blumstein. 2003. “The Criminal Career Paradigm.” Crime and Justice-A Review of Research 30:359-506.
*Massoglia, Michael, Brianna Remster, and Ryan King. 2011. “Stigma or Separation? Understanding the Incarceration Divorce Relationship.” Social Forces.
4/11 GENDER and GENERALITY
"Women are quite able to see to their own defence, as long as the law does not transform them into criminals if they take effective measures to do so.” - Claire Joly et al.
Daly, Kathleen and Meda M. Chesney-Lind. 1988. “Feminism and Criminology.” Justice Quarterly 5: 497-538.
Miller, Jody and Christopher Mullins. 2006. “The Status of Feminist Theories in Criminology." Pp. 217-250 in Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory. Advances in Criminological Theory, Vol. 15, edited by F.T. Cullen, J.P. Wright, and K.R. Blevins. New Brunswick: Transaction.
Lauritsen, Janet L., Karen Heimer and James P. Lynch. 2009. “Trends in the Gender Gap in Violent Offending: New Evidence from the National Crime Victimization Surveys” Criminology 47: 361-399.
Steffensmeier, Darrell and Dana Haynie. 2000. "Gender, Structural Disadvantage, and Urban Crime: Do Macrosocial Variables Also Explain Female Offending Rates?" Criminology 38:403-438.
Kreager, Derek A., Ross L. Matsueda, and Elena A. Erosheva. 2010. “Motherhood and Criminal Desistance in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods.” Criminology 48:221-258.
*Hagan, John, A.R. Gillis, and J. Simpson.1985. "Class in the Household: A Power-Control Theory of Gender and Delinquency." American Journal of Sociology 92:788-816.
*Kruttschnitt, Candace and Kristin Carbone-Lopez. 2006. “Moving beyond the stereotypes: Women‟s subjective accounts of their violent crime.” Criminology 44:321-351.
*Uggen, Christopher and Candace Kruttschnitt. 1998. "Crime in the Breaking: Gender Differences in Desistance." Law and Society Review 32:401-28.
*Burgess-Proctor, Amanda. 2006. “Intersections of race, class, gender, and crime: Future directions for feminist criminology.” Feminist Criminology 1: 27-47.
4/18 CRIME, HATE, and HUMAN RIGHTS
“Well, when the President does it that means that it is not illegal.” – Richard Nixon
Hagan, John and Wenona Rymond-Richmond. 2008. “The Collective Dynamics of Racial Dehumanization and Genocidal Victimization in Darfur.” American Sociological Review 6:875-902.
Savelsberg, Joachim J. 2010. Crime and Human Rights: Criminology of Genocide and Atrocities. London: Sage. [Selections]
Maier-Katkin, Daniel, Dan Mears, and Thomas J. Bernard. 2009. “Towards a Criminology of Crimes Against Humanity.” Theoretical Criminology 13: 227-256.
King, Ryan D., Steven F. Messner, and Robert D. Baller. 2009. “Contemporary Hate Crimes, Law Enforcement, and the Legacy of Racial Violence.” American Sociological Review 74: 291-315.
Carr, Patrick, Laura Napolitano, and Jessica Keating. 2007. “We Never Call the Cops and Here is Why: A Qualitative Examination of Legal Cynicism in Three Philadelphia Neighborhoods.” Criminology 45:445-480.
*Hagan, John, Wenona Rymond-Richmond, and Patricia Parker. 2005. “The Criminology of Genocide: The Death and Rape of Darfur.” Criminology 43:525-562.
4/25 RACE, CONFLICT, and PUNISHMENT
“Crime and the fear of crime have permeated the fabric of American life.” – Warren Burger
Kubrin, Stucky, and Krohn, Chapter 9.
Wacquant, Loic. 2000. “The
New 'Peculiar Institution': On the Prison as Surrogate Ghetto.”
Theoretical Criminology 4:377-89.
Pettit, Becky and Bruce Western.
Imprisonment and the Life Course: Race and Class Inequality in U.S.
Incarceration.” American Sociological Review 69:151-69.
Goffman, Alice. 2009. “On the Run: Wanted Men in a Philadelphia Ghetto." American Sociological Review 74: 339-357.
Angela Behrens, Christopher
Uggen, and Jeff Manza. 2003. “Ballot
Manipulation and the ‘Menace of Negro Domination’: Racial
Threat and Felon Disenfranchisement in the United States, 1850-2002.” American Journal of Sociology 109:559-605.
*Katherine Beckett, Kris Nyrop, and Lori Pfingst. 2006. "Race, Drugs, and Policing: Understanding Disparities in Drug Delivery Arrests." Criminology 44: 105–137.
*Quinney, Richard. 1977. Class, State, and Crime. New York: David McKay.
*Colvin, Mark and John Pauly.
Critique of Criminology: Toward an Integrated Structural-Marxist
Theory of Delinquency Production.” American Journal
of Sociology 89:513-52.
*Messerschmidt, James. 1993. Masculinities and Crime: Critique and Reconceptualization of Theory. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
*King, Ryan D. and Darren Wheelock. “Group Threat and Social Control: Race, Perceptions of Minorities, and the Desire to Punish.” Social Forces 85:1255-1280.
5/2 CONSEQUENCES of CRIME and PUNISHMENT
“Tremble, thou wretch, That hast within thee undivulged crimes Unwhipped of justice.” - William Shakespeare
Hagan, John. 1994. “Destiny
and Drift: Subcultural Preferences, Status Attainments, and the
Risks and Rewards of Youth.” American Sociological
Uggen, Christopher and Jeff
Manza. 2002. "Democratic
Contraction? The Political Consequences of Felon Disenfranchisement
in the United States." American Sociological Review 67:777-803.
Western, Bruce. 2002. “The
Impact of Incarceration on Wage Mobility and Inequality.” American Sociological Review 67:477-98.
Massoglia, Michael. 2008. “Incarceration, Health, and Racial Disparities in Health.” Law and Society Review 42:275-306.
Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert. 2010. “Penal Boundaries: Banishment and the Expansion of Punishment.” Law and Social Inquiry 35: 1-38.
*Mauer, Marc, and Meda Chesney-Lind. 2003. Invisible Punishment: The Collateral Consequences of Mass Imprisonment. New York:The New Press.
*Beckett, Katherine and Steve Herbert. 2010. Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America. Oxford University Press.
*Western, Bruce. 2006. Punishment and Inequality in America. New York: Russell Sage.
*Wakefield, Sara and Christopher Uggen. 2010. "Incarceration and Stratification." Annual Review of Sociology.
Preventing Crime: What Works,
What Doesn't, What's Promising (summary)[complete]
Sourcebook of Criminal
Bureau of Justice Statistics
Minnesota Planning Criminal Justice
Minnesota Department of Corrections
County (Minneapolis) Law, Public Safety, & Courts
Juvenile Code (Ch. 260, 260A, 260B, 260C) (enter chapter number)
National Center for Juvenile
Justice Reference Service
Office of Juvenile
Justice and Delinquency Prevention
Center on Juvenile & Criminal